Flavonoids: are known for their antioxidant action but are probably also responsible for the immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Anthocyanins: contribute to the antioxidant action.
Lectins (Type II ribosome-inactivating protein, Sambucus nigra agglutinin III): have an antiviral action and inhibit the reproduction of viruses and their adherence to the cell walls.
Tannins: have an astringent and therefore antiseptic effect.
Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activities of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) Extract in Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation
Peter M. Abuja, Michael Murkovic , and Werner Pfannhauser
J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46 (10), pp 4091–4096
Incorporation of the elderberry anthocyanins by endothelial cells increases protection against oxidative stress.
Youdim KA, Martin A, Joseph JA.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Jul 1;29(1):51-60.
Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula.
Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004 Jan;69(1):75-80, 1 p preceding 75.
Structure-activity relationship of immunomodulating pectins from elderberries.
Ho GT, Ahmed A, Zou YF, Aslaksen T, Wangensteen H, Barsett H
Carbohydrate Polymers 2015,125, 241-248
The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines.
Barak V, Halperin T, Kalickman I.
Eur Cytokine Netw. 2001 Apr-Jun;12(2):290-6.
Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro.
Roschek B Jr, Fink RC, McMichael MD, Li D, Alberte RS
Phytochemistry. 2009 Jul; 70(10):1255-61.
Binding of a natural anthocyanin inhibitor to influenza neuraminidase by mass spectrometry
Swaminathan K, Dyason JC, Maggioni A, von Itzstein M, Downard KM
Anal Bioanal Chem. (2013) 405 (20): 6563–72.
Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama.
Zakay-Rones Z, Varsano N, Zlotnik M, et al.
J Altern Complement Med 1995;1:361-9.
Sambucus nigra extracts inhibit infectious bronchitis virus at an early point during replication
Chen C, Zuckerman DM, Brantley S, Sharpe M, Childress K, Hoiczyk E, Pendleton AR
BMC Vet Res. 2014 Jan 16;10:24.
The carbohydrate-binding plant lectins and the non-peptidic antibiotic pradimicin A target the glycans of the coronavirus envelope glycoproteins.
Van der Meer FJUM, de Haan CAM, Schuurman NMP, Haijema BJ, Verheije MH, Bosch BJ, Balzarini J, Egberink HF
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007, 60: 741-749
Anti-human rhinovirus activity of gallic acid possessing antioxidant capacity.
Phytother Res. 2010 Sep;24(9):1292-6.
Choi HJ, Song JH, Bhatt LR, Baek SH.
Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses
Krawitz C, Mraheil MA, Stein M, Imirzalioglu C, Domann E, Pleschka S, Hain T.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Feb 25;11:16
Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized
Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Evelin Tiralongo, Shirley S. Wee, Rodney A. Lea
Nutrients. 2016 Apr; 8(4): 182.
Pilot clinical study on a proprietary elderberry extract: efficacy in addressing influenza symptoms.
Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics. 2009;5: 32-43
The health claims that feature on our website in relation to the plants contained in our products are compliant with the list of health claims awaiting final assessment by the Community authorities (cf. website of the European Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/nuhclaims/). However, they may be subject to modification following their assessment by the national competent authorities.
The health claims relating to other nutrients or substances contained in our products that feature on our site are compliant with Regulation No. 432/2012 of the Commission of 16 May 2012 which establishes a list of authorised health claims authorised in relation to food products, other than those in reference to the reduction of the risk of disease as well as community-based development and child health (cf. website of the European Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/nuhclaims/).